Baltimore Design School

Description

A survivor that has endured decades of abandonment, the 1914 Lebow Building is an impressive example of early 20th century industrial architecture that is just starting a new future as the Baltimore Design School. While it takes its popular name from the Lebow Brothers Clothing factory that occupied the building from the 1950s through 1985, the Lebow Building actually shares a common history with the Copycat Building next door and the artist-owned Cork Factory – all three were built by Baltimore's Crown Cork & Seal Company.

Founded by prolific inventor William Painter in 1892, the Crown Cork & Seal Company centralized their operations on the 1500 block of Guilford Avenue in a new Romensque six-story warehouse in May 1897. William Painter died in 1906 but the business continued to grow and the Lebow Building was built in 1914 to serve as a machine shop. The design by architect Otto G. Simonson featured vast expanses of glass – windows made up nearly 75% of the exterior facade – and a unique ventilation system. Simonson had arrived in Baltimore in 1904 to work as the superintendent for the construction of the U.S. Custom House located at South Gay and East Lombard Streets. Born in Dresden, Germany, Simonson immigrated to Hartford, Connecticut at age 21 and worked for many years in the office of supervising architect of U.S. Treasury Department in the early 1880s, eventually becoming the superintendent of construction of public buildings.

The builder, Herbert West, had supervised the construction of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York before moving his architectural career to Baltimore in the aftermath of the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904 to focus on developing fireproof buildings. West became a leader in the local architectural community and helped to develop city building codes as president of the Building Congress and Exchange of Baltimore.

By the 1920s, the Crown Cork & Seal Company provided a full half of the world's supply of bottle caps. Between two and three hundred people worked at the machine shop and employees benefited from amenities including an outdoor rooftop recreation area for ladies and a separate area for men in the building's courtyard. In 1930, however, the company began to consolidate operations at their 35-acre factory complex in Highlandtown.

In 1950, the machine shop was leased to Lebow Brothers Clothing Company – a preeminent manufacturer of men's clothing at the time and especially well-known for their coats and suits. In 1982, private developer Abraham Zion purchased both the company and the building. However, Lebow Clothing ceased manufacturing and the building was shuttered in 1985.

In 2013, the abandoned building was transformed into the Baltimore Design School. The school focuses on creating a collaborative and progressive educational environment. The former loading dock is now an outdoor performance space for fashion shows. Salvaged equipment from the clothing factory is exhibited in the former freight elevator to honor the building’s previous life. The project met the Secretary of Interior Standards for historic preservation and received state and federal tax credits and is a LEED Silver certified green building.

Photos Show

Crown, Cork & Seal Company Machine Shop, 1914

Crown, Cork and Seal Company Machine Shop at the corner of Barclay and East Oliver Street. c. 1914

Photo courtesy Hughes Company Glass Negatives, The Photography Collections, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, P75-54-N315g.

Crown Cork & Seal Company Machine Shop, 1914

Illustration of the Crown Cork & Seal factory machine shop, ca 1914.

Image courtesy William Painter and his father, Dr. Edward Painter : sketches and reminiscences (1914), Internet Archive, williampainterhi00pain.

William Painter, 1897

Photograph of William Painter by Perkins, Novemebr 30, 1897.

Image courtesy William Painter and his father, Dr. Edward Painter : sketches and reminiscences (1914), Internet Archive, williampainterhi00pain.

Lebow Brothers Clothing Company, 1949

Photograph of workers making suits at the Lebow Brothers Clothing Company located at Oliver Street and Guilford Avenue, August 16, 1949.

Image courtesy the BG&E Collection, Baltimore Museum of Industry, BGE.21061.

Lebow Brothers Clothing Company, 1949

Photograph of a worker checking on equipment at the Lebow Brothers Clothing Company located at Oliver Street and Guilford Avenue, August 16, 1949.

Image courtesy the BG&E Collection, Baltimore Museum of Industry, BGE.21061.

Classroom, Baltimore Design School

Photograph of a classroom at the Baltimore Design School by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Baltimore Design School, 2013

Photograph of the Baltimore Design School by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Cafeteria, Baltimore Design School, 2013

Photograph of the cafeteria at the Baltimore Design School by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Office, Baltimore Design School, 2013

Photograph of the front office at the Baltimore Design School by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Entrance, Baltimore Design School, 2013

Photograph of the front entrance at the Baltimore Design School by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Baltimore Design School at night, 2013

Photograph of the exterior of the Baltimore Design School at night by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Baltimore Design School at night, 2013

Photograph of the exterior of the Baltimore Design School at night by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Students, Baltimore Design School, 2013

Photograph of students of the Baltimore Design School by Karl Connolly, 2013.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Baltimore Design School under construction, 2012

Photograph of the Baltimore Design School during construction by Michael Dersin, 2012.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Lebow Building, 2010

Photograph of the exterior of the Lebow Building in September 2010 before construction began on the Baltimore Design School.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Lebow Building, 2010

Photograph of the interior of the Lebow Building in September 2010 before construction began on the Baltimore Design School.

Image courtesy Ziger/Snead Architects.

Cite this Page

Elise Hoffman, “Baltimore Design School,” Explore Baltimore Heritage, accessed November 28, 2014, http:/​/​explore.​baltimoreheritage.​org/​items/​show/​53.​
View a random Story
comments powered by Disqus

Share this Page